A pressure decomposition framework for aeroacoustic analysis of turbulent jets
Datta V. Gaitonde
Aeroacoustic analyses of jet flows have benefited greatly from a decomposition of turbulent pressure fluctuations into hydrodynamic and acoustic components. This is typically accomplished using signal processing techniques based on phase speeds, coherence properties or spectral analyses. We present an approach, building on the Momentum Potential Theory (MPT) approach of (Doak, 1989), to split pressure fluctuations into their hydrodynamic, acoustic and entropic, collectively designated fluid-thermodynamic (FT), components. Key advantages are that the approach is applicable everywhere in the jet i.e, not restricted to the near-acoustic field, and does not need user-defined thresholds. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by analyzing the flowfields of three simulated jets, to encompass moderate-compressible to supersonic conditions. The statistical properties and wavepacket dynamics of each pressure component, and their relationships with the unsplit pressure are elaborated. The acoustic pressure field has the form of a wavepacket that attenuates downstream and whose modal analysis reveals low-rank behavior. At each Mach number examined, the acoustic pressure also identifies the relative prominence of each of three components: i) waves with upstream propagating energy content (negative group velocity), ii) supersonically traveling radiating downstream waves, and iii) subsonically convected evanescent waves, which follow the convection pattern of hydrodynamic eddies in the turbulent region. With increasing Mach number, the radiating and convected bands of energy move closer to each other. The hydrodynamic pressure also displays a wavepacket structure, but its features are different: it displays large-scale subsonically convected structures even past the core collapse region. Thus, in the turbulent region of the jet, the acoustic pressure displays smaller integral time scales of fluctuations than the hydrodynamic component. The acoustic pressure field, which includes a zero-crossing in its radial profiles, displays larger wavelengths than the hydrodynamic pressure field, correlates better with the near-field pressure signal and captures the radiated component of noise, especially at shallow angles. These properties make it a suitable field for informing pressure-based wavepacket models for jet noise.
European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids