Acoustic, Hydrodynamic and Thermal Modes in a Supersonic Cold Jet
Large-eddy simulation data for a Mach 1.3 round jet are decomposed into acoustic, hydrodynamic and thermal components using Doak’s momentum potential theory. The decomposed fields are then analysed to examine the properties of each mode and their dynamics based on the transport equation for the total fluctuating enthalpy. The solenoidal fluctuations highlight hydrodynamic components of the jet and capture the shear layer growth and breakdown process. The acoustic mode exhibits a jittering coherent wavepacket structure in the turbulent region and consequent highly directional downstream radiation. The expected radial decay rates, r^-6 for hydrodynamic and r^-2 for acoustic, are recovered and closely follow the universal radiation spectra in the sideline and downstream directions. The scalogram of the acoustic mode in the near-acoustic-field region is consistent with that of the pressure perturbation signal in the acoustic-frequency range, but effectively removes the hydrodynamic and thermal content. The time-resolved and mean behaviour of terms in the total fluctuating enthalpy equation is analysed in detail. A large-scale intermittent event in the near-acoustic field is shown to be associated with an intrusion of vortices from the shear layer into the core of the jet. Acoustic sources are created when the resulting negative fluctuations in the solenoidal component interact with positive fluctuations in the Coriolis acceleration term. The latter are associated with regions of high vorticity on the inner side of the shear layer. In contrast, sinks result from the interaction of solenoidal momentum fluctuations with positive entropy gradients along entrainment streaks.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics